March 17, 2014

Excerpt from GHG Reduction Technologies Monitor


Q&A: Advanced Resources International President Vello Kuuskraa


GHG Reduction Technologies Monitor: So what has restimulated the recent interest in CO2 EOR?


Vello Kuuskraa: At Advanced Resources Int’l, with support from the DOE and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), we began to analyze the potential of using and storing anthropogenic CO2 with EOR rather than just injecting the captured CO2 emissions in saline aquifers.

The major hurdle we faced was the view that - - ‘Yes, it's all very nice, but CO2-EOR is a small, niche opportunity’. While we were claiming that CO2-EOR was a ‘Bridge to CO2 Sequestration,’ others, believing that the opportunities for CO2 utilization by EOR were very small called it a ‘Bridge to Nowhere’.


GHG Reduction Technologies Monitor: Based on what you mentioned earlier on the role for DOE , NETL and State governments, do you believe that there is a need for a gov’t-industry working partnership to move forward?


Vello Kuuskraa: A government/industry R&D partnership on CO2 enhanced oil recovery, particularly to pursue advanced versions of CO2-EOR, would be of great benefit. If you ask me the question what are the most important things to do to get CCUS going, my view is the following:


First, is to bring down the cost of CO2 capture from power plants, from the $80 to $100 a metric ton of CO2 today

Second, is to pursue advanced, we call it Next Generation, CO2 EOR technology. By making the CO2-EOR process more efficient, the size of the CO2 market doubles and industry would be able to pay more for CO2.

Third, is to pursue policy options that would close the gap between the cost of CO2 capture and the EOR industry’s affordable market price for CO2.

Finally, the opportunities for CO2 utilization and storage by EOR overseas are likely several fold larger than in the U.S. This could be a most interesting topic for a future study and discussion.


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February 12, 2013

Excerpt from Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology


The 60 Second Interview: The Role of Enhanced Oil Recovery for Carbon Capture, Use, and Storage


Interview with Vello Kuuskraa, President, Advanced Resources International


GHG: What is the role of CO2 EOR as a market driver for CO2 capture and storage?


Vello Kuuskraa: CO2-EOR can provide a series of market drivers for CCUS. It can remove the costs of CO2 storage from the power company and transfer the long-term liability for CO2 to the oil company. Most importantly, CO2-EOR can provide revenues from the sale of CO2, which can help to bridge the gap between the cost of CO2 capture and other revenues, incentives and support provided to carbon capture and storage (CCS).


GHG: How can EOR help to reduce carbon emissions?


Vello Kuuskraa: There are concerns by some that CO2-EOR will just bring more carbon out of the ground and therefore add to the problem. That’s called “additionality.” However, CO2-EOR stores nearly as much CO2 as the carbon content of the oil, making it a low to neutral carbon energy option. The low/neutral carbon barrel of oil from CO2-EOR can substitute for a full carbon content barrel of oil from imports and push the use of that high-carbon oil into the next century. Therefore, from a practical point of view, CO2-EOR provides substitution of low-carbon oil for high-carbon oil, very much like wind power provides low-carbon substitution for gas or coal-fired power.


For full interview, please visit